Working Principles of Inclined Vibrating Screens

November 18, 2019

Gravity, that’s the “secret sauce” here. When inclined screens process high-volume mineral loads, the loose aggregate arcs upwards, then it angles outward and back down to the screening deck. Without that inclination angle, without the aid of gravity, the arc path would be thinner, not as granularly spread. Mounted on coil springs and pushed by an unbalanced flywheel, this equipment pretty much relies on Newtonian physics.

Exploring Inclined Vibrating Screen Stroke Mechanics

To be fair, gravity isn’t in charge of the whole screening stroke. There are at least three equipment-based design elements in the mix, too. Switching to an orthogonal view, it’s easier to separate the various stages. An adjustable screen angle creates a planar slope. With the screen apertures covering this sloped panel, a vibrating mechanism begins the stroke. As mineral streams topple down the slope, the eccentrically shaped flywheel mechanism imparts a series of “kicks,” which cause the in-process particles to become airborne. Arcing up and then downward, there’s generally a greater degree of area coverage fostered as the frame inclination angle increases. It’s up to the equipment maintenance workers and aggregate processing managers to decide on an effective stream processing angle. Broadly speaking, the slope angle will vary between 15 and 30 degrees.

Regarding Coarse and Fine Separation Principles

There’s another law of physics that activates as soon as the flywheel triggers a frame kick. As soon as the grains become airborne, their mass also affects the way in which they’ll arc and drop back onto the screen. This is an exploitable effect. Using two, perhaps as many as four decks, fine and coarse mixes are screened and separated. The motor and flywheel turn their shafts, counterweights, and flywheels. Elsewhere, the spring force anchors the equipment and compensates for the heavy vibratory energies. Multiple stroke energies are now released as the differently sized and weighted particles bounce. Their paths, if they could be slowed down enough, would describe larger and smaller circles and ovoids, which aid in the coarse to fine material division action.

There are probably only two constants working away during the screening stroke. The springs absorb the same amount of energy while gravity works predictably on the airborne grains to create their tiny flight paths. Then, coming down at an angle that helps to eliminate pegging and clogging problems, the differently sized particles become more sortable and screen-friendly. They drop down a deck and find their own level, according to the energy imparted by a nearby electric motor and its array of elliptically configured flywheels and counterweights. At the end of the day, the principles in charge here have everything to do with gravity and circular motion, as provided by a frequency-controlled frame oscillation mechanism.

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